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by Bureau of Naval Personnel

A person's home may be a … house, apartment, or other building, or alternatively a mobile home, houseboat, yurt or any other portable shelter. Most homes provide areas and facilities for sleeping, preparing food, eating, entertaining and hygiene. Books about homes and home making may cover any of these topics, and others dealing with maintenance, cleaning, gardening etc. About us Leopold Classic Library has the goal of making available to readers the classic books that have been out of print for decades.

While these books may have occasional imperfections, we consider that only hand checking of every page ensures readable content without poor picture quality, blurred or missing text etc. That's why we: republish only hand checked books; that are high quality; enabling readers to see classic books in original formats; that are unlikely to have missing or blurred pages. You can search "Leopold Classic Library" in categories of your interest to find other books in our extensive collection.

Happy reading! Illustrated by Julia Greene. Hardc … over. In every cook's kitchen, there is a treasured tool: a workhorse utensil, go-to gadget, or a family heirloom with its own background story and the lofty standing of being … a cook's most-prized possession. These beloved items say as much about the cook as Cagnolo, I. English … translation with illustrations and a map. Banish those blank walls: Posters are the most convenient way to bring rad art to your space.

W … e print each design on smooth gloss paper for sharp, high-quality images and super Easy to install and DIY - the border is prepasted and strippable. This book examines aircraft models by twenty outstanding practitioners from around the world, and provides detailed coverage of their often widely varying techniques. Eac … h includes color photos of the featured model, plus numerous detail construction Add depth and texture to your Framed Art Print with a wood scoop frame.

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Our Framed Prints … provide a contemporary aesthetic that looks awesome by itself or as part of a It's time to let go of the plastic cup you've been keeping your toothbrush in all these years. Gitti Lindner has something much cuter on deck: a handmade clay holder stam … ped with the pronoun of your choice, whether that's "his," "hers," or "theirs.

Bonus: Each holder is sold individually, so you can mix and match them to suit any type of couple. Handmade in California. This book was originally published prior to , and represents a reproduction of an important historical work, maintaining the same format as the original work.

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While s … ome publishers have opted to apply OCR optical character recognition technology to the process, we believe this leads to sub-optimal results frequent typographical errors, strange characters and confusing formatting and does not adequately preserve the historical character of the original artifact. We believe this work is culturally important in its original archival form. While we strive to adequately clean and digitally enhance the original work, there are occasionally instances where imperfections such as blurred or missing pages, poor pictures or errant marks may have been introduced due to either the quality of the original work or the scanning process itself.

Despite these occasional imperfections, we have brought it back into print as part of our ongoing global book preservation commitment, providing customers with access to the best possible historical reprints. We appreciate your understanding of these occasional imperfections, and sincerely hope you enjoy seeing the book in a format as close as possible to that intended by the original publisher. Do you have trouble with tools — find that they wear out too quickly, find that you can't decide which tools to buy or which tools to use for a specific job, find that li … ttle things continually go wrong?

The only way to learn to use tools, of course, is by using them, but first you have to know which tools to use and why. This manual, originally prepared for the use of naval personnel, was designed to present the basic hand and power tools that the ordinary person is likely to use. Through a wealth of diagrams, clear explanations, safety tips, and operating instructions you will soon learn the basics of choosing tools and using them as they were meant to be used.

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Nearly every hand tool you are likely to use around the house is described in the first chapter: hammers, wrenches, screwdrivers, wood saws, planes, wood chisels, metal chisels, dies, drills, files, hacksaws, punches, reamers, taps, clamps, vises, pliers, knives. Chapter two covers the common power tools: drills, grinders, sanders. Chapter three covers measuring tools from rules and tapes to calipers, micrometers, and squares with detailed instructions on how to use each one.

Chapter four describes the common nails, screws, bolts, nuts, rivets, and other fasteners you are likely to use. Chapter five describes grinders and shows how to sharpen and care for screwdrivers, chisels, drills, and snips. The final two chapters cover such miscellaneous tasks and tools as metal cutting operations, stripping insulated wire, and soldering techniques. By the time you finish you should know the names, general uses, and correct operation of all the basic tools, fasteners, and measuring devices you are likely to need around the house.

You should be able to select tools for a basic kit for doing simple home repairs. And you should be confident in beginning to use tools for yourself to perform all those simple but necessary repair jobs. Museum quality giclee on canvas. Museum wrapped with black sides.

Hand made in the USA. BHG shop. Hilderic Friend. See it Now. Related Products. Sale Alert See at Amazon. Sale Alert See at Walmart. According to the lecturer, it is hardly possible to draw a distinction between tool and a machine. Whilst the former is more simple than the latter, they so merge into one another that it is difficult to determine where one ends and the other begins. For example, a lathe is a handicraft tool, and yet in its highly developed form it is a very complicated machine. It was one of the earliest devices to be erased from the list of tools and promoted to a place amongst machines.

It may be said that tools increase and vary human power, economise human time, and convert substances apparently the most common and worthless into valuable and useful products. Without tools the hand would be nearly powerless; add to it a hammer and a cutting instrument, and its capacity is increased many fold. Rollers as a means of moving heavy blocks of stone were a contrivance which very largely ex-tended the powers of men ; the application of grease to bearings and surfaces enabled man to utilise a much larger portion of his power ; whoever first pointed a strip of bone or shell, and made an eye in it, gave to man as a tool an invention far exceeding in importance and value anything yet accomplished by heat or electricity ; and who-ever first applied a barb to a spear and a hook, introduced a contrivance of inestimable importance.

Aristotle — B. He selected as the distinguishing characteristic of man, regarded for this purpose alone, that man was " a tool-making. This view of man is accepted generally, and in recent times the inferences from it are wider and more extended than Aristotle could have anticipated, antiquarians now admitting that wherever on the earth tools are found, there men must once have dwelt. The first traces of tools are said to be met with in the post-tertiary strata, and the inference is that man's existence may be placed so far back that centuries seem insignificant periods of time.

Sir Charles Lyell speculates that at least two hundred thousand years have passed since. History, at all reliable, written in a known language, and in intelligible alphabetical characters, does not carry further back than the days of Herodotus "the father of history " , born between and B. In a scheme of geological strata, the strata found above the tertiary are divided into three classes—the post-glacial, prehistoric, and historic ; in the post-glacial there are not any traces of handicraft work ; in the prehistoric, there are found remains of canoes made of trees, of dwellings erected on, piles, implements made of flint and stone, and fragments of charred wood.

For the present purpose these are three"ages '': in the first one tools were of stone, and this is again subdivided into two periods, the palaeolithic or ancient stone period, when the stone tools were left with rude and rough exteriors, and the neolithie or recent. In the second age bronze tools are found, and also those of pure copper, these latter tools being so rare that they are comprehended in the term bronze. In the third age tools are of iron, and form an introduction to the present age. These ages are not markedly distinct, and it is probable that whilst in one part of, the world men were using bronze, in another they were using iron.

It, is known that in times to which even geologists might hesitate to apply the term "re-cent," the smelting of copper and of tin was known, and the combining of these metals to form a bronze as hard as any made and used at the present time was also practised. An analysis of these ancient bronze implements shows that the copper is alloyed with from 5 to 10 per cent. Analysis of Egyptian bronze implements gives 94'0 copper, 5. Another source of information materially helps in supplying inferential, if not actual, knowledge with regard to the first formed tools. The traditions and customs of a people are preserved and repeated, generation after generation, by savage and isolated races of men.

Hence amongst savage -tribes and roving barbarians may be found at this day tools altogether different in form from those amongst civilised people. Such tools may be, and probably are, derived from ancestors of geological antiquity. In the Pacific Islands , in North America, Australia , Africa , and elsewhere, there are races who know not the use of metals, and whose implements correspond exactly with those found mixed with the fossil remains of extinct animals.

Herodotus mentions that flint knives were used in Egypt in embalming, and such knives are found in the tombs, and were employed long after bronze and other metals were general. There is thus a '. The handicraft contrivances and skill of the untutored are not to be despised, and much is owing to uneducated men of clear though-, cunning resource, singular ingenuity, and much handicraft skill.

It is well known that even in our own times the earliest germs of many most important inventions and discoveries have their origin in the suggestions of hard-working but illiterate artisans. To pass from the earliest suggestions of bronze implements to the first unquestionable period of metal tools, the forms and modes of using which are so clearly shown pictorially, Egyptian history must be considered. The paintings and sculptures of ancient Egypt and Herculaneum show very clearly the tools which were then in use, and an amazing amount of information has thus been preserved.

The subject cannot be pone into here, but it may be said that the tools and contrivances used in the building of the early pyramids axe not known. The erection of these early pyramids is placed about B. There are no hieroglyphics on these, and they do not carry their history as the tombs do.

In a tomb at Thebes have been found a case of tools and a tool basket, belonging to a. On one bronze hatchet, and one bronze adze, and one bronze saw is the name Thothmes III. And on other blades of axes is the name of Ata, an officer in the time of the sixth dynasty. In addition to these, the Egyptian cabinet maker had in his bass rasps, a plummet, and a hone.

Sufficient has now been said , it is thought, to convince the reader of the antiquity of many commonly used tools. Tools may be classed according to their functions and modes of action, as follows:. These tools and their functions will be described in much the same order as the above. Ritchey, High school manual training course in woodwork; including cost of equipment and supplies and studies on trees and wood New York : American Book Company, Because the rate of "school completion" is so abysmal -- i.

And, the training of industrial arts teachers is a delicate problem.

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Teachers with cabinetmaking experience are not trained in "teaching", and teachers without cabinet-making expereince are not good at teaching cabinetmaking. Included is this warning under "Motors and Machinery", on pages If the manual training room is not too large, and there is no occasion for long shafting, the machines may be driven by directly connected motors, though this method has its disadvantages; the machines do not start so easily or quickly as those having a loose and tight pulley, and in the case of the band saw the instructor must start the electrically driven saw every time , or let it run continuously, as the younger pupils cannot be trusted to do this ; while the saw with the old-fashioned tight and loose pulley, with its shifting lever, may be started and stopped by any one at will.

A pony planer or single surfacer is almost a necessity for the use of teachers in getting out material. The circular saw is of course part of the equipment for the use of teachers only. The band saw and scroll saws are perfectly safe for the pupils to use , and their educational value as tools beyond question, -- their simple mechanical construction and the association of the pupil with such simple power-driven machines --the necessity of curved work in the course, -- in cabinet making and pattern making, -- and the training in following the marked curved and straight lines with the saw Elementary Woodwork.

By Frank H. Selden, University of Chicago. By Samuel E. American Book Company, , pp. These two books differ in scope and in the quantity of details presented and yet have enough in common to warrant their being reviewed together. Each is the result of an attempt by the author, a shop teacher, to commit to written and illustrated pages the subject-matter of the course he wishes his pupils to accomplish. Each attempts by means of text and illustration to set before the pupil correct tool practice in a few selected exercises in woodwork.

These books do not represent the first attempts of their kind, consequently one does not expect to find subject-matter wholly new. Either book may be used to advantage as a reference text by the teacher who does not care to follow the course as outlined. Selden's book devotes seven pages to an introduction, then ninety-seven pages to Part I. The first five lessons, sixteen pages, with sixteen half-tone reproductions of photographs showing positions of hands, tools, etc. Part II. Part III.

Most of the photographic reproductions are well executed and illustrate clearly the points they are intended to; the working drawings are moderately well done -- not the best we have seen by any means; the printing and general make-up are very good. Ritchey's book opens with a chapter on equipment, giving a detailed list of high school equipment with prices and supplies for one year for seventy-two pupils. Chapter two is an outline or syllabus of the course in shopwork for the first year of the high school as elaborated in the book. Then follow two chapters, twenty pages, dealing with trees and their leaf and fruit forms, and the properties of wood.

The chapter on Carpentry describes the tools used, their care, use, adjustment, and sharpening. The first exercise is a book-rack with rectangular uprights gained into the bottom 11 in. Other exercises are: box, hat-rack, and a series of joints. Thirty-three pages are next devoted to a very successful presentation of the fundamental exercises in wood-turning, followed by several projects.

The chapter on cabinet-making, fifty-four pages, takes up a number of problems in construction: boxes, taborets, hand mirrors, frames, etc. Some of the designs are certain to be criticized as being too mechanical. In this chapter are presented several projects in which a horizontal member pierces a vertical member with a wedged mortise and-tenon joint. Bawden-- an editor of Manual Training Magazine -- rightly, I think, objects to the idea of "decoration", i.

Crawshaw, had this to say about needless decoration:. Too often a good design, well constructed, is cheapened by the attempt to decorate. In just a few words may we not now sum up the requirements of a good piece of furniture: First of all we will have a particular use for what we are going to design, and this use will determine for us the material of construction.


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Then we will decide upon our general lines and proportions, being governed in doing so by three or four recognized principles in design. We will see to it that good construction is used, and, if possible, make this construction a help to decorate our piece.

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Last, but not least, we will finish in such a way as to preserve the texture of the wood and give it a soft, rich color that will add to the beauty of the whole The last two chapters, forty-four pages, deal with methods of molding, and pattern-making, respectively. Each chapter of the book is followed by a set of suggestive test questions, and at the close of the book are thirteen pages of indexes, making all of the material easily available.


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The working drawings are usually clear and fairly well executed though in almost all of them the lettering could be improved to advantage. The freehand sketches are not as good as some we have seen in recent publications of this class. And, finally, in a address source below , the noted Arts and Crafts architect, William T Price, voices his dissatisfaction with the quality of student cabinet-makers being turned out by the schools who teach manual education:. By the end of the nineteenth century , in the city where such brilliant eighteenth-century craftsmen as William Savery and Thomas Affleck had made Philadelphia furniture synonymous with the highest quality in the nation, and where, after the Civil War, Daniel Pabst had produced remarkable custom furniture and paneling for Frank Furness, it had become nearly impossible to find cabinetmakers skilled in all the aspects of their craft.

In only one generation of labor specialization , Philadelphia workshops had been so transformed that Price could scarcely find even a two- or three-man workforce for his shops. In , in a talk about the value of manual training courses in public schools, Will recalled his difficulty in finding workers for Rose Valley. A couple of years ago, some of us tried to start some little shops at Rose Valley.

I went to one of the oldest and best cabinet makers in the city of Philadelphia and asked him if he could get me two or three good, all-round cabinet makers. He said, "Well, I think I could get you two. I said: "I want young men. I can get you a good dowel sticker, or a good man on the lathe or mortise machine, but there is no such thing as a cabinet maker in the cabinet making shop. That is the situation in one of the most simple, direct and important of the crafts left to us.

Not only was it hard to find craftsmen who were absorbed in their work but, as Price observed further in the talk, there were significant social consequences to be considered. A nation of "button pushers" could not long remain a republic, and while industries based on such systems might make goods profitably, Price warned that "it does not make character; and you cannot get character as a by-product of such labor. Price, "The Attitude of Manual Training," Paul Nooncree Hasluck, ed. Philadelphia : David McKay,